How Coffee Beans Grow?

  • , by Frank Masotti
  • 6 min reading time
How Coffee Beans Grow?

How Coffee Beans Grow?

Coffee beans are a staple in our daily lives, but how do they actually grow? Coffee beans come from coffee cherries, which grow on coffee plants. These plants, often found in tropical climates, require specific conditions to thrive. They need rich, organic soil, a steady temperature range of 16-24ºC, and lots of attention to watering and sunlight.


Key Takeaways

  • Coffee beans come from cherries on coffee plants.
  • Plants need rich soil, a good temperature, and careful watering.
  • Harvesting involves soaking, fermenting, and drying the beans.

Once the cherries are ripe, they are harvested to extract the beans inside. The process involves soaking the seeds, fermenting them to remove any pulp, and finally washing and drying them. It takes three to six years for a coffee plant to mature and become ready for harvesting, but the effort is well worth it for a fresh cup of coffee.

By cultivating coffee plants with care and precision, we ensure that the coffee beans we enjoy are of the highest quality. Our journey from seed to cup is a labor of love that brings out the unique flavors we savor every morning.

The Coffee Plant

The coffee plant is a fascinating shrub or small tree that thrives under specific conditions and comes in various types. Understanding its needs and varieties helps us cultivate these precious beans more effectively.

Types of Coffee Plants

Two main types of coffee plants are Coffea Arabica and Coffea Robusta.

Coffea Arabica plants, often called Arabica, are the most popular and account for about 60-70% of the world's coffee production. These plants have a preference for higher altitudes and cooler climates. They have shiny, dark-green leaves and can grow over 30 feet tall in their natural habitat. Arabica coffee beans are known for their smooth, complex flavors and lower caffeine content.

Coffea Robusta, known simply as Robusta, makes up the remaining 30-40% of global coffee production. These plants are more resilient and can grow in lower altitudes and warmer climates. Robusta plants are more tolerant to pests and diseases but produce beans that are stronger and more bitter than Arabica.

Growing Conditions

The ideal growing conditions for coffee plants are found in the Coffee Belt, a region between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

Soil: Coffee plants thrive in rich, well-draining soil, often peat-based with organic matter. Slightly acidic soil is best for vigorous growth.

Temperature: They prefer temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Extreme temperatures can harm the plants.

Shade and Light: Coffee plants do well with indirect sunlight. They are typically grown in shaded nurseries to protect from direct sunlight and to mimic their natural, cool, mountainous habitats.

Planting Coffee Seeds: Start by soaking the seeds in water for 24 hours to prepare them for planting. They should be planted about an inch deep in well-draining soil and kept in a shaded area.

Climate: Coffee plants prefer tropical climates, often found in mountainous regions within the coffee belt. These areas have the necessary temperature ranges and rainfall patterns to support coffee growth.

Cultivation Processes

Growing coffee beans involves several important steps. These include planting the seeds, maintaining the plants through pruning, and finally harvesting the coffee cherries.


To start, coffee seedlings are planted in rich, well-draining soil. The seeds need to soak in water for 24 hours before planting to awaken them.

We plant the seeds about an inch deep in the soil. Locations matter; coffee plants thrive best in tropical climates with moderate rainfall. They also need partial shade to protect from direct sunlight.

Spacing is vital. We place coffee seedlings about 5 feet apart to give each plant room to grow. Regular watering, especially in dry periods, helps seeds germinate properly.

Pruning and Maintenance

Pruning keeps coffee plants healthy and productive. We remove dead or diseased branches regularly. This helps prevent pests and diseases from spreading.

Pruning also focuses the plant’s energy on producing quality cherries instead of unnecessary branches. This process is usually done after the first main harvest. Proper pruning techniques involve cutting back the older and less productive branches.

Pest and disease management is crucial. Common pests include coffee borer beetles and leaf rust. We use organic pesticides and good farming practices to manage these issues.

Harvesting Coffee Cherries

Harvesting coffee cherries is a critical step. We wait until the cherries are ripe, usually when they turn a deep red color. Timing is key; harvesting too early or late affects the bean's quality.

There are two main methods of harvesting: hand-picking and mechanical harvesting. Hand-picking allows us to select only the ripe cherries, ensuring better quality. This method is labor-intensive but results in premium beans.

Mechanical harvesting is faster and used in larger farms. Machines shake the trees to collect cherries, including both ripe and unripe ones. Sorting follows to separate the good from the bad.

The Coffee Bean Journey

The journey of a coffee bean is a detailed process involving several steps from start to finish. We follow each stage closely, ensuring the beans develop their rich flavors and unique characteristics.

From Cherry to Green Beans

Coffee begins with the cherries that grow on coffee trees. Cherries are harvested once they are ripe. Farmers either hand-pick these cherries or use machines.

Each cherry contains two coffee seeds, known as beans. After picking, the cherries go through a process called depulping, where the outer fruit is removed, leaving the beans inside. The beans are then washed to remove mucilage and fermented to break down any remaining sticky residue.

Once cleaned, the beans are dried either on large patios under the sun or using drying machines. The resulting product is known as green beans, which are ready for roasting.

Roasting Coffee Beans

Roasting is a crucial step that transforms the green beans into brown coffee beans. We roast the beans at varying temperatures depending on the desired flavor profile.

The roasting process involves heating the beans in a roaster, where they go through physical and chemical changes. This develops their flavors and aromas.

Light roasts, medium roasts, and dark roasts have different characteristics. Light roasts retain more of the bean's original flavors, while dark roasts have a bolder, more intense taste. The roasted beans are then cooled quickly to halt the roasting process.

Grading and Sorting

Once roasted, beans are graded and sorted. This step ensures consistency and quality. We sort beans by size, weight, and color using screens and machines.

Defective beans are removed. Grading involves evaluating the beans based on factors like flavor, aroma, and acidity. High-quality beans get a higher grade and are often more expensive.

This meticulous sorting guarantees that only the best beans make it to our cups. Grading not only affects taste but also price and marketability.

Export and Distribution

After grading, the beans are packed and prepared for shipment. Coffee beans are typically shipped in burlap sacks or specialized packaging to maintain freshness.

Beans are exported from coffee-growing regions to various countries. Distributors receive the beans and supply them to roasters or directly to stores.

This global network ensures that coffee lovers everywhere can enjoy fresh, quality coffee. Machines and advanced logistics play an essential role in quickly moving the beans from the farm to your coffee cup.


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